563–483 BCE - Indian
The founder of Buddhism. Whether he developed a religion or a philosophy is highly debatable. He was a philosophical empiricist, the first in world history, and firmly rejected metaphysics or any form of speculation not supported by our five senses.
On the other hand, he was not solely an empiricist. He was also a mystic who practiced the deepest forms of meditation. And he was an ethical teacher who counseled that unrestrained desires are a snare, an illusion, and the source of human unhappiness.
The Dhammapada, a collection of the Buddha's sayings, is one of the great texts in the field of values.
551–479 BCE - Chinese
Social thinker. Like Buddhism, Confucianism began as a philosophy, based on the recorded sayings of the founder, but gradually evolved into a religion, and for many centuries was the state religion of China.
Confucian thought was very conservative, emphasizing the veneration of parents, ancestors, and state authorities. But it taught that parents or rulers should not be selfish or authoritarian, but rather aspire to a high standard of courtesy and conduct, and unselfishly work for the betterment of those below them.
530–468 BCE - Athenian
Soldier and statesman. Aristides was often referred to as "the just." The story goes that the Athenians were voting whether to exile Aristides (political leaders were often exiled or "ostracized" for a time to limit their power and to ensure the survival of the Athenian democracy). One commoner, not recognizing the statesman, asked him for assistance in voting against him. Aristides helped him without demur.