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341–270 BCE


Philosopher. Although very falsely accused of promoting hedonism, the pursuit of pleasure for its own sake, Epicurus actually taught that, yes, we should pursue pleasure, but this meant freedom from worry and pain, and was best achieved by limiting and disciplining our desires. He also believed, in contrast to the stoics, that it was best to avoid public life. What survives of his writing is beautiful and wise. He died, as he lived, with complete patience and self-control.


384–322 BCE
fl. 350 BCE
410–320 BCE
336–265 BCE
360–270 BCE
299–210 BCE
436–338 BCE
318–272 BCE
fl. 350 BCE
fl. 350 BCE
287–212 BCE
382–336 BCE
310–250 BCE
383–322 BCE
fl. 350 BCE