1741–1801 - American
Soldier. The most famous traitor in American history, he began as a valued staff officer on the American side of the Revolutionary War, eventually plotted to hand his command, West Point, over to the British, and ended the war as a British officer. In time his name became a by-word for treachery. ("So and so is a Benedict Arnold.")
1724–1804 - German
Philosopher. Kant is considered by some to be the greatest philosopher, or at least European philosopher, who ever lived. In addition to pointing out that the reality we observe will always be shaped by our mind, he tried to place morals on a firm foundation of logic through his celebrated Categorical Imperative, which held that actions can only be justified if we wished everyone else to emulate them. A professor of fixed habits, he lived all his life in one city and devoted himself totally to scholarship and philosophy.
1731–1806 - American
Polymath and scientist. He was born the child of a free black mother and a slave father, was selected by Thomas Jefferson to help survey the District of Columbia, and later became widely known as a scientist. His story conclusively proved the intellectual potential of freed slaves.